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Table 1 Self-construal and state-individual relationships under two modes of social association

From: "Selective firming" of the self-boundary: social movements and the reshaping of the state-individual relationship during China’s transformation: A case study of a collective litigation caused by demolition in City B

Social structure Characteristics of individualism Characteristics of self-boundary State-individual relationship
Differential mode of associations in China Ensemble individualism Permeability: elasticity and flexibility Individual absorbed by the state and subordinate to the state
Group mode of associations in the West Self-contained individualism Firming: closed and fixed Individual independent from the state and equal with the state