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Table 3 Transformation of the labor dispute mediation system from 1987 to 2012

From: Can the strategy of “mediate first” reduce collective labor disputes?—An empirical test based on province-level panel data from 1999 to 2011

Period 1987–1992 1993–2007 2008–2012
Background SOE reform Expansion of non-state economy Social instability
Political goal Absorbing labor petitions triggered by the reform of SOE and labor policy regime Containing labor disputes in non-state areas Maintaining a harmonious society
Formal institutions Mediate first, arbitrate later, adjudicate last One mediation, one arbitration, and two lawsuits Triple mediations, one arbitration, and two lawsuits
Legal basis Provisional regulation on handling labor disputes in state-owned enterprises (1987) Regulation on handling labor disputes in enterprises (1993) Law on mediation and arbitration of labor disputes (2008)
Mediatory mechanism Mediation by enterprise mediation committees Mediation by labor arbitration institutions Classified mediation and grand mediation