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Table 8 Robustness test of the causality between mediatory capacity of labor arbitration institutions and handled collective labor disputes

From: Can the strategy of “mediate first” reduce collective labor disputes?—An empirical test based on province-level panel data from 1999 to 2011

Models (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
Methods LSDV LSDV System-GMM System-GMM System-GMM System-GMM
One-step One-step Two-step Two-step
Dependent variables Average involved workers per collective dispute case accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln) Proportion of collective dispute cases accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln) Average involved workers per collective dispute case accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln) Proportion of collective dispute cases accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln) Average involved workers per collective dispute case accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln) Proportion of collective dispute cases accepted by arbitration institutions (Ln)
Dependent variables (Lag1)    0.197** 0.330* −0.022 −0.134
    (0.070) (0.132) (0.520) (0.267)
Explanatory variables       
Mediatory capacity of labor arbitration institutions    −1.298* 0.986 −3.636* 3.201
    (0.587) (0.722) (1.444) (1.700)
Mediatory capacity of labor arbitration institutions (Lag1) −0.777 −0.073     
  (0.448) (0.376)     
Previous control variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Province-fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Period-fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Province-specific time trend Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
AR(1)    −3.20 p = .001 −2.48 p = .013 −0.88 p = .379 −1.04 p = .299
AR(2)    1.24 p = .213 −0.93 p = .351 0.17 p = .866 −0.62 p = .536
Sargan test    Chi2 = 78.13 p = .110 Chi2 = 59.01 p = .043 Chi2 = 36.34 p = .636 Chi2 = 53.80 p = .028
Observations 272 272 279 279 279 279
R-squared 0.430 0.723     
  1. Huber-White standard errors in parentheses
  2. *,**,***Denote significance at the 95, 99, and 99.9 % levels, respectively