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Table 4 Firm scale, family intentions, and family control (N = 2098)

From: Family involvement, firm size, and performance of private-owned enterprises

Variables Family ownership Family management Family intentions
Model 1(A) Model 1(B) Model 2(A) Model 2(B) Model 3
Entrepreneurs’ education (primary education)   
 Secondary education −0.026 −0.024 −0.096*** −0.091*** −0.045
  (0.022) (0.022) (0.025) (0.024) (0.079)
 Higher education −0.093*** −0.077*** −0.240*** −0.205*** −0.331***
  (0.021) (0.021) (0.024) (0.022) (0.074)
Politics relationship (1 = yes) 0.003 0.006 −0.026**** −0.019 −0.063
  (0.013) (0.013) (0.015) (0.014) (0.047)
Diversification strategy (1 = yes) 0.032* 0.032* 0.030**** 0.030**** −0.005
  (0.015) (0.015) (0.017) (0.016) (0.052)
Manufacturing (1 = yes) −0.013 −0.01 0.005 0.012 −0.072
  (0.013) (0.013) (0.014) (0.014) (0.045)
Firm location (western)
 Eastern −0.005 −0.003 −0.012 −0.008 −0.037
  (0.016) (0.016) (0.018) (0.017) (0.058)
 Central −0.007 −0.001 −0.004 0.009 −0.131*
  (0.019) (0.018) (0.021) (0.020) (0.065)
Firm age 0.004** 0.004** 0.001 0.002 −0.005
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.001) (0.005)
Firm size −0.009*** −0.008*** −0.008*** −0.006*** −0.024***
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.006)
Family intentions   0.047***   0.105***  
   (0.006)   (0.007)  
Constant 0.854*** 0.834*** 0.446*** 0.403*** 0.413***
  (0.026) (0.026) (0.029) (0.028) (0.092)
R2 0.038 0.064 0.091 0.190 0.042
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.1