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Table 4 Ordinary least square and hierarchical linear models of status discordance China 2003–2012

From: Discordance between subjective and objective social status in contemporary China

  OLS 1 OLS 2 HLM 1 HLM 2
      Random coefficient Random coefficient
 Schooling years (SY) −0.110*** (0.0052) −0.0675*** (0.0050) −0.116*** (0.0064) −0.0723*** (0.0054)
 Household income (HI) −0.0351*** (0.0082) −0.00999 (0.0117) −0.0354*** (0.0085) −0.0077 (0.0125)
 Occupation (ISEI) −0.0191*** (0.0011) −0.0286*** (0.0012) −0.0190*** (0.0013) −0.0280*** (0.0013)
 Perceived mobility         
  Upward mobility (UM) 0.284*** (0.0230) 0.317*** (0.0247) 0.279*** (0.0232) 0.316*** (0.0244)
  Downward mobility (DM) −0.193*** (0.0220) −0.226*** (0.0262) −0.197*** (0.0217) −0.227*** (0.0251)
 Age 0.0051*** (0.0007) 0.0055*** (0.0007) 0.0053*** (0.0007) 0.0056*** (0.0007)
 Male −0.0717*** (0.0112) −0.0966*** (0.0107) −0.0774*** (0.0107) −0.0975*** (0.0102)
 CCP membership −0.0608*** (0.0197) −0.0339* (0.0185) −0.0566*** (0.0187) −0.0343* (0.0180)
 Marital status         
  Divorced/widowed −0.118*** (0.0244) −0.123*** (0.0236) −0.121*** (0.0234) −0.125*** (0.0234)
  Single −0.159*** (0.0244) −0.124*** (0.0230) −0.148*** (0.0230) −0.123*** (0.0219)
 Work status         
  Employed 0.0489*** (0.0151) 0.0861*** (0.0154) 0.0607*** (0.0146) 0.0912*** (0.0154)
  Retired 0.028 (0.0237) −0.0207 (0.0218) 0.0079 (0.0242) −0.025 (0.0225)
 Urban residents −0.479*** (0.0308) −0.456*** (0.0317) −0.460*** (0.0296) −0.438*** (0.0310)
 Linear year 0.0021 (0.0047) 0.0047 (0.0045) 0.0028 (0.0045) 0.0046 (0.0044)
 CGSS 0.167*** (0.0254) 0.180*** (0.0249) 0.167*** (0.0244) 0.179*** (0.0242)
 SY# urban residents    −0.0907*** (0.0062)    −0.0852*** (0.0057)
 HI# urban residents    −0.0491*** (0.0142)    −0.0527*** (0.0149)
 ISEI# urban residents    0.0167*** (0.0016)    0.0154*** (0.0013)
 UM# urban residents    −0.0725** (0.0337)    −0.0785** (0.0331)
 DM# urban residents    0.0704*** (0.0245)    0.0659*** (0.0229)
 Province dummies Yes Yes
 Constant −0.657*** (0.0451) −0.616*** (0.0482) −0.152*** (0.0480) −0.188*** (0.0481)
sd (SY)      0.0317*** (0.0046) 0.0200*** (0.0027)
sd (HI)      0.0396*** 0.0062 0.0387*** (0.0072)
sd (ISEI)      0.0064*** (0.0012) 0.0045*** (0.0008)
sd (random intercept)      0.1685*** (0.0296) 0.1674*** (0.0298)
sd (residuals)      1.0295*** (0.0092) 1.0189*** (0.0100)
Observations 68,054   68,054   68,054   68,054  
  1. (1) Estimations are based on weighted data; robust standard errors adjusted for clustering on provinces are shown in parentheses in OLS models. (2) Reference categories: female, non-CCP membership, married, employed, no mobility; project CSS; year 2003; Beijing
  2. ***p < 0.01