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Table 2 Multinomial logistic regression model of enrollment at different education stages (only independent variable)

From: “Lost at the starting line”: a reconsideration of educational inequality in China, 1978–2008

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Transition between primary and junior high school Transition between junior high and senior high school Transition between senior high school and university
Nonkey junior high school Key junior high school Vocational senior high school Nonkey senior high school Key senior high school College Nonkey university Key university
Enrollment yeara 0.584* 0.377 0.481* −0.093 0.713** 0.986** 0.947** 0.702
(0.227) (0.314) (0.217) (0.166) (0.243) (0.307) (0.344) (0.412)
[1.793] [1.458] [1.617] [0.912] [2.039] [2.680] [2.579] [2.018]
Father’s IESI when respondent was 14 years old (divided by 10) 0.271*** 0.307*** 0.110* 0.085* 0.178** −0.011 0.062 0.056
(0.064) (0.079) (0.045) (0.041) (0.055) (0.052) (0.074) (0.092)
[1.311] [1.360] [1.117] [1.089] [1.195] [0.989] [1.064] [1.057]
Years of parent’s education 0.117*** 0.214*** 0.069** 0.085*** 0.085** 0.060 0.066 0.122*
(0.022) (0.036) (0.025) (0.020) (0.031) (0.032) (0.042) (0.050)
[1.124] [1.239] [1.071] [1.088] [1.088] [1.062] [1.068] [1.130]
Grade of schoolb         
Key school 0.872* −1.231*** 2.418*** 1.207*** 1.902*** 2.200***
   (0.356) (0.350) (0.267) (0.236) (0.275) (0.355)
   [2.393] [0.292] [11.229] [3.343] [6.700] [9.028]
Vocational senior high school −2.032*** −4.287*** −3.854***
      (0.354) (1.021) (1.035)
      [0.131] [0.014] [0.021]
Constant 0.278 −3.288*** −2.494*** −1.660*** −3.850*** −2.531*** −3.304*** −4.751***
(0.255) (0.519) (0.352) (0.257) (0.357) (0.546) (0.583) (0.805)
N 2587 2465 1502
Pseudo R 2 0.16 0.16 0.23
Log likelihood −1436.44 −2094.33 −638.93
  1. The numbers in parentheses are standard deviation; the numbers in brackets are odds ratio
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. a1978–1991 is the reference group
  4. bNonkey junior high schools and nonkey senior high schools are the reference group. It is important to note that we usually take the lowest school type, such as nonkey junior high schools or vocational senior high schools, as the reference group. However, there were a few vocational senior high school graduates entered in the stage of college in the sample. There was no vocational senior high school graduate who entered the stage of higher education before 1992, and there were only two after 1992. Hence, we took nonkey senior high schools as the reference group