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Table 2 Number of sons and daughters and their influence on life quality of elderly parents

From: Does the number of children matter to the happiness of their parents?

Variables Health condition Economic status Living environment Living pattern
  R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
Self-assessment Physical mobility Self-assessment of relative economic status Meat consumption Flooring Cooking energy Living with children
Number of living sons −.077*** (.026) −.045* (.025) −.033 (.031) −.108** (.045) −.119*** (.028) −.307*** (.072) .124 (.075)
Number of living daughters −.057*** (.020) .050*** (.005) −.029 (.024) −.009 (.033) −.074*** (.022) −.202*** (.054) .101* (.057)
Personal characteristics of respondents
 Years of schooling .017*** (.005) .012** (.005) .040*** (.007) .018** (.009) .025*** (.006) .080*** (.015) .027* (.015)
 Age −.018*** (.003) −.032*** (.003) −.021*** (.004) −.015*** (.005) −.026*** (.004) −.040*** (.009) −.098*** (.010)
Party membership .158** (.077) .108 (.075) .247*** (.093) .200* (.118) .059 (.084) .201 (.215) −.240 (.226)
Number of siblings .001 (.011) .014 (.011) −.003 (.013) .036** (.019) −.011 (.012) −.050 (.031) −.043 (.032)
Mountainous areas .111** (.055) .060 (.053) .091 (.066) −.045 (.088) .134** (.060) −.825*** (.149) −.677*** (.163)
Hilly areasa −.116** (.059) −.111** (.057) .112 (.071) .392*** (.103) −.087 (.064) −.736*** (.159) −.029 (.162)
Intercept 4.378*** (.211) 6.261*** (.205) 3.904*** (.256) 4.785*** (.352) 4.748*** (.231) 3.450*** (.591) 5.032*** (.626)
Valid sample 1454 1454 1454 1454 1454 1454 1454
F-value 15.113*** 27.183*** 18.203*** 7.752*** 24.11*** 229.768*** 159.571***
R 2 .076 .128 .090 .077 .116 .192 .141
  1. Note: (1) Models R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 are linear regression models; models R6 and R7 are binomial logistic regression; and the output reports for the goodness of fit is Nagelkerke R 2. (2) The number in brackets is the standard error of the estimate
  2. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01
  3. aWhen modeling, plain areas are set to the control group