Skip to main content

Table 3 Average years of schooling of daughters and sons and their impact on elderly people’s life quality in rural areas

From: Does the number of children matter to the happiness of their parents?

Variables Health condition Economic status Living environment Living pattern
  R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
Self-assessment Physical mobility Relative economic status Meat consumption Flooring Cooking energy Living with children
Sons’ average years of schooling .006 (.011) −.005 (.011) .051*** (.013) −.028 (.018) .017 (.012) .027 (.031) −.101*** (.033)
Daughters’ average years of schooling .021** (.011) .028** (.011) .064*** (.013) .025 (.017) .047*** (.012) .127*** (.031) .014 (.031)
Personal characteristics of respondents
 Years of schooling .014** (.007) .010 (.007) .030*** (.008) .014 (.010) .013* (.007) .068*** (.018) .019 (.019)
 Age −.018*** (.007) −.029*** (.007) −.021*** (.008) −.021** (.010) −.029*** (.007) −.058*** (.019) −.098*** (.020)
Party membership .172* (.094) .152* (.093) .127 (.111) .139 (.135) .034 (.101) .168 (.262) .126 (.275)
Number of siblings .000 (.014) .007 (.014) −.006 (.016) .046** (.022) −.028** (.015) −.066 (.038) .006 (.040)
Mountainous areas .073 (.060) .008 (.059) .067 (.070) −.104 (.091) .077 (.063) −.1.030*** (.163) −.491*** (.175)
Hilly areas −.221*** (.077) −.158** (.076) .046 (.090) .382*** (.125) −.220*** (.082) −.986*** (.209) −.049 (.218)
Birth year of children
 1950s .273 (.187) −.208 (.185) .125 (.220) −.091 (.297) −.005 (.200) −.137 (.555) 1.222** (.544)
 1960s −.220** (.088) −.218** (.087) .022 (.104) .047 (.144) −.057 (.094) −.075 (.243) .169 (.280)
 1970s −.003 (.079) .067 (.078) .014 (.093) .006 (.124) .103 (.084) .084 (.214) −.351 (.231)
 1980s −.096 (.071) −.024 (.070) −.049 (.083) −.118 (.111) .027 (.075) −.424** (.198) −.167 (.213)
Intercept 4.075*** (.417) 5.858*** (.441) 2.888*** (.489) 4.604*** (.646) 4.187** (.445) 2.897*** (1.176) 6.160 (1.229)
Valid sample 994 994 994 994 994 994 994
F-value 8.845*** 14.220*** 13.136*** 4.466*** 11.130*** 163.83*** 121.824***
R 2 .094 .148 .138 .093 .120 .203 .161
  1. Note: (1) Models R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 are linear regression models; models R6 and R7 are binomial logistic regression; the output reports for the goodness of fit is Nagelkerke R 2; and the report for F is chi-square. (2) The number in brackets is the standard error of the estimate
  2. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01