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Table 4 Sons and daughters’ average years of schooling’s influence on parents’ life quality at old age (for different age groups

From: Does the number of children matter to the happiness of their parents?

Variables 49–59 60–69 70 and above
  R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3
Health Relative economic status Living with children Health Relative economic status Living with children Health Relative economic status Living with children
Sons’ average years of schooling −0.06 (.014) .035** (.017) −.196*** (.045) −.005 (.011) .062** (.024) .016 (.062) .039 (.043) .105*** (.041) .056 (.115)
Daughters’ average years of schooling .030** (.014) .080*** (.018) −.011 (.043) .031*** (.011) .064*** (.022) .114*** (.057) .025 (.038) .040 (.036) −.088 (.103)
Personal characteristic of the old-aged
 Years of schooling .017** (.008) .021** (.010) .042* (.024) .013** (.007) .038*** (.014) .015 (.036) .015 (.026) .054** (.025) −.037 (.071)
 Party membership .002 (.129) .361** (.159) .360 (.382) .100 (.093) −.096 (.185) −.821 (.536) −.097 (.316) −.141 (.302) −.009 (.925)
Number of siblings .005 (.018) −.025 (.023) −.014 (.055) .013 (.014) .015 (.027) .023 (.070) .021 (.058) .009 (.055) .034 (.163)
Geographical characteristic IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN
Birth year of children IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN
Intercept 4.248*** (.216) 1.663*** (.265) 2.323*** (.666) 4.165*** (.154) 1.375*** (.332) −.2441*** (.879) 2.650*** (.625) 1.829*** (.597) −.254 (1.672)
Valid sample 490 490 490 490 490 490 490 490 490
F-value 2.460*** 7.451*** 44.131*** 13.473*** 3.683*** 16.803 .721 2.344*** 11.673
R 2 .049 .135 .115 .131 .100 .068 .064 .182 .150