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Table 5 Sons and daughters’ lowest years of schooling and effects on parents’ life quality at old age

From: Does the number of children matter to the happiness of their parents?

Variables Health condition Economic status Living environment Living pattern
  R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
Self-assessment Physical mobility Relative economic status Meat consumption Flooring Cooking energy Living with children
Son’s average years of schooling .010 (.011) .001 (.011) .045*** (.013) .039** (.018) .012 (.012) .041 (.030) −.087*** (.032)
Daughter’s average years of schooling .016* (.010) .023** (.10) .058*** (.012) .011 (.015) .038*** (.011) .117*** (.029) −.009 (.029)
Personal characteristics of respondents
 Years of schooling .015** (.007) .010 (.007) .031*** (.008) .014 (.010) .014** (.007) .068*** (.018) .021 (.019)
 Age −.018*** (.007) −.029*** (.007) −.019*** (.008) −.020** (.010) −.028*** (.007) −.056*** (.019) −.101*** (.020)
Party membership .175* (.094) .158* (.093) .137 (.111) .146 (.135) .046 (.101) .184 (.262) .151 (.275)
Number of siblings .000 (.014) .006 (.014) −.007 (.016) .045** (.022) −.028** (.015) −.069* (.038) .007 (.040)
Geographical characteristics IN IN IN IN IN IN IN
Birth year of children IN IN IN IN IN IN IN
Intercept 4.084*** (.419) 5.856*** (.413) 2.928*** (.492) 4.595*** (.650) 4.286*** (.447) 2.747 (1.182) 6.366 (1.236)
Valid sample 994 994 994 994 994 994 994
F-value 8.407*** 14.118*** 12.526*** 4.464*** 10.553*** 166.063*** 121.046***
R 2 .093 .147 .133 .093 .114 .205 .160
  1. Note: (1) Models R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 are linear regression models; models R6 and R7 are binomial logistic regression; the output reports for the goodness of fit is Nagelkerke R 2; and the report for F is chi-square. (2) The number in brackets is the standard error of the estimate. (3) In the segmented regression, the variable used to measure health condition is physical mobility. (4) The model makes geographical characteristics and children’s birth year constant and does not include the results in this paper. Interested readers can contact the author for more information
  2. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01