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Table 1 Gratification: a typology

From: Understanding middle class consumers from the justification of taste: a case study of Beijing

Types of gratification
  Sensual Instrumental Contemplative Social
Low intensity Pleasure Satisfaction Entertainment Participation
High intensity Joy Achievement Appreciation Mutuality
  1. Source: Warde, A. and L. Martens (2000). Eating Out: Social Differentiation, Consumption and Pleasure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 187