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Table 3 Descriptive summary of variables (2007)

From: Natural resources, rent dependence, and public goods provision in China: evidence from Shanxi’s county-level governments

Variables Mean Std. dev. Min Max
Independent variables
 Coal Dependence Index (%) 20.33 27.02 0 123.954
 GDP per capita (yuan) 13061.03 8639.64 2357 49,566
 Ratio of urbanization (%) 30.70 10.02 12.240 70.640
 Total population (person) 257380.40 132707.30 62,201 740,341
 Land area (km2) 1471.09 589.32 221 3166
 County-level city (dummy variable)    0 1
 Transfer dependency (%) 61.946 23.403 0 96.542
 Number of students in primary and middle school (per 10,000 persons) 1732.632 280.900 1212.391 2766.479
 Number of beds in healthcare institutions (per 10,000 persons) 24.909 10.249 6.363 56.789
Dependent variables
 Share of social expenditures (%) 51.062 7.018 30.033 63.490
 Share of education expenditures (%) 23.999 4.919 13.850 37.608
 Share of social security and healthcare expenditures (%) 19.533 4.986 8.909 31.523
 Share of environmental protection expenditures (%) 5.337 3.222 0.987 15.652
 Share of administrative expenditures (%) 21.039 7.171 12.489 47.244
  1. Notes: (1) N = 96. When calculating the shares of various expenditures in total expenditures, both budgetary and extrabudgetary expenditures were included. The share of own revenues in expenditures in the Hejin county-level city of Yuncheng is 117 %, and we take it as 100 %. Its transfer dependency (the ratio of transfers to total expenditures) is then 0 %. Therefore, we took the log of transfer dependency as log (x + 1). Similarly, when taking the log of the Coal Dependence Index, we used the same method
  2. (2) Data source: Ministry of Finance, 2011; National Bureau of Statistics, 2008a, c; Shanxi Statistical Bureau, 2008