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Table 4 Coal dependence and various government expenditures in Shanxi Province (2007)

From: Natural resources, rent dependence, and public goods provision in China: evidence from Shanxi’s county-level governments

  Share of social expenditures Share of administrative expenditures
(1) OLS (2) 2SLS (3) OLS (4) 2SLS
Coal Dependence Index −0.027*** −0.032*** 0.078*** 0.081***
(0.008) (0.008) (0.016) (0.017)
GDP per capita 0.050 0.078** −0.004 −0.042
(0.038) (0.039) (0.078) (0.079)
Transfer dependency 0.136** 0.151** −0.091 −0.116
(0.062) (0.064) (0.116) (0.121)
Ratio of urbanization −0.029 −0.046 −0.131 −0.105
(0.062) (0.060) (0.105) (−0.099)
Total population 0.096*** 0.094*** −0.137*** −0.136***
(0.024) (0.023) (0.051) (−0.049)
Land area 0.043 0.057* −0.097 −0.113*
(0.031) (0.029) (0.066) (−0.065)
County-level city 0.088 0.099* −0.163 −0.180*
(0.061) (0.060) (0.112) (0.108)
Number of students 0.121 0.123   
(0.107) (0.102)   
Number of hospital beds −0.001 −0.003   
(0.025) (0.032)   
Constant 0.661 0.327 6.100*** 6.56***
(1.187) (1.142) (1.415) (1.467)
R square 0.3862 0.3803 0.3473 0.3448
Hansen J test p value   0.3225   0.6684
Cragg-Donald Wald F   262.06   253.65
Hausman specification P   0.0207   0.2171
  1. Notes: (1) N = 96. Except for the administrative level dummy, all variables are in logarithms. Numbers in table are unstandardized coefficients. White’s heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors are in parentheses below the coefficients
  2. (2) *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01