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Table 3 Summary of OLS regression models of the impact of children’s gender structure on parental gender ideology (N = 8339)

From: Are mothers of sons more traditional? The influence of having son(s) and daughter(s) on parents’ gender ideology

Variables Model 4 Model 5
B SE B SE
Gender (reference group: male) −0.121*** 0.015 −0.188*** 0.029
Age 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Age-squared 0.000*** 0.000 0.000*** 0.000
Ethnicity 0.027 0.027 0.025 0.027
Type of Hukou −0.106*** 0.019 −0.106*** 0.019
Communist party membership −0.104*** 0.024 −0.105*** 0.024
Religious belief −0.042 0.031 −0.042 0.031
Frequency of participation in religious activities 0.013 0.007 0.013 0.007
Level of education (elementary school or below = 0)
 Secondary school −0.163*** 0.019 −0.157*** 0.019
 High school −0.213*** 0.024 −0.207*** 0.024
 College and above −0.233*** 0.033 −0.229*** 0.033
Frequency of internet usage −0.017** 0.007 −0.018** 0.007
Working status 0.015 0.019 0.014 0.019
Income −0.012*** 0.003 −0.012*** 0.003
Education level of father −0.002 0.004 −0.002 0.004
Education level of mother −0.002 0.006 −0.003 0.006
Number of children 0.019* 0.010 0.019 0.010
Only sons 0.005 0.019 −0.020 0.026
Both sons and daughters 0.029 0.023 −0.032 0.029
Female × only sons    0.052 0.037
Female × both sons and daughters    0.124*** 0.037
Constant 3.146*** 0.052 3.180*** 0.054
Adjusted R 2 0.083   0.084  
F 40.63   37.39  
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001