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Table 1 The changing process of fertility choices in danwei communities

From: What determines “giving birth to a son”: the social transformation of how institution and culture affect women’s fertility choices

End-year of fertility Family members Fertility status
1980 Eldest brother She has two sons and changed her ethnic identity from Han to Manchu to give birth to the second child.
1983 Eldest sister She has two sons and changed her ethnic identity from Han to Manchu to give birth to the second child.
1983 Second sister She has one son and one daughter, whereas the daughter is the second child. She changed her ethnic identity from Han to Manchu, to avoid the penalty
1984 Third sister She has one daughter and one son, whereas the son is the second child. She has not changed her ethnic identity. After her son was born in 1984, she suffered punishment by her danwei and was dismissed from office, lost job.
1987 Tong Ling She has only one son and changed her ethnic identity from Han to Manchu in order to have a second child. Due to work demands and the one-child atmosphere in her danwei, she ultimately did not have second child
1989 Younger sister She has one child and did not want a second child or change ethnic identity.
2001 Younger brother He has one child at later age. Before the child was born, his wife aborted twins for the pursuit of education and career.