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Table 5 Conditions of language use of 18 ethnic groups

From: The recent trend of ethnic intermarriage in China: an analysis based on the census data

Ethnic group Language usage Detailed information
Manchu, Hui 1 Mother language is Mandarin
Tujia, Zhuang 2 Several vernaculars only used in tall timber; preliterate or created words are not used; Mandarin is popular
Yao, Li, Hani, Bai 3 Bilingualism, use Chinese characters
Miao, Dong, Buyi 4 Mandarin and Chinese characters are popular, also use several vernaculars in settlement areas and created words in primary publishing and education.
Yi, Dai 5 Ethnic languages with traditional writing systems are popular in settlement areas and used in primary and secondary education, publishing, and other media in the governments of autonomous areas. Mandarin and Chinese characters are both used popularly.
Uyghur, Kazak, Tibetan, Mongol, Korean 6 Ethnic languages and their writing systems are in common use with complete modern school systems and media institutes.
  1. Source: The Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and the Culture and Publicity Division, State Ethnic Affairs Commission, 1994