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Table 1 Knowledge flow and theory development

From: Reconstructing the concept of face in cultural sociology: in Goffman’s footsteps, following the Chinese case

Direction of knowledge flow
[M = Metropole; P = Periphery]
Concept–theory relation Place of guanxi in the theory Scope of the concept of guanxi
M → P External Object of explanation (explanandum) Local relevance only
M ↔ P Internal (nondirecting) Secondary explanatory concept (explanans) Partial general relevance
M ← P Internal (directing) Primary explanatory concept (explanans) General relevance