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Table 2 A multi-case study

From: Competition for attention in the Chinese bureaucracy

Organization Party committees Government Functional bureaus
Working mode Party leads + government supervise + functional bureaus coordinate Government supervise + functional bureaus coordinate Functional bureaus coordinate
Authority type Leadership/political authority = real authority Administrative authority = formal authority Professional authority = symbolic authority
Incentive strategy High-powered affiliated incentive; High-powered incentives of quantified reward and punishment (party and government accountability) Medium-powered affiliated incentive; Medium-powered incentives of quantified reward and punishment (government accountability) Low-powered affiliated incentive; Low-powered incentives of quantified reward and punishment (functional bureaus accountability)
Incentive intensity High-powered incentives Medium-powered incentives Low-powered incentives
Governance effect Good Unstable Poor
Supporting cases Judicial innovation (legal adviser) Family planning (1983/1991) City management (2007–2008) Reform of collective forest rights (joint management of five levels of party committees) Environmental protection (party and government accountability in future) Judicial innovation (legal service) Family planning (1982/1984) City management (1989–2006) Environmental protection (government accountability) Judicial innovation Family planning City management Reform of collective forest rights Environmental protection (functional bureaus accountability)