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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of controls

From: The social bases of a committed labor force: how guanxi works in the Chinese factories?

Individual-level Freq. Percentage Group-level Freq. Percentage
Gender City
 Male 3021 59.83  Shanghai 40 14.18
 Female 2028 40.17  Nanjing 40 14.18
Hukou status  Nantong 40 14.18
 Local urban 970 19.21  Changzhou 40 14.18
 Local rural 846 16.76  Hangzhou 41 14.54
 Nonlocal urban 765 15.15  Ningbo 40 14.18
 Nonlocal rural 2468 48.88  Wenzhou 41 14.54
Cohort Ownership
 Before 1980 1802 35.69  State-owned 21 7.45
 1980–1986 1378 27.29  Private 170 60.28
 After 1986 1869 37.02  Foreign 20 7.09
Occupational class  Joint 71 25.18
 Managerial/technical 345 6.83 Industry
 Routine nonmanual 515 10.20  Electronics 45 15.96
 Skilled worker/shop-floor supervisor 1592 31.53  Garment 66 23.40
 Unskilled worker 2597 51.44  Mechanics 92 32.62
Labor contract  Automobile assembly 28 9.93
 Yes 3278 64.92  Chemical engineering 51 18.09
 No 1771 35.08 Labor/capital intensive
Social insurance  Labor intensive 140 49.65
 Yes 2883 57.10  Capital intensive 142 50.35
 No 2166 42.90 Labor rights protection institution
Workplace abuse  Yes 105 37.23
 Yes 731 14.48  No 177 62.77
 No 4318 85.52 Continuous variable Mean Sd.
Union membership  Years of schooling 10.66 2.47
 Yes 929 18.40  Working experiences 7.84 6.91
 No 4120 81.60  Work autonomy 4.58 1.69
Democratic participation in the workplace  Hourly wage 13.37 5.41
 Yes 1277 25.29  Scale of organization 267.91 569.08
 No 3772 74.71  Human capital stock 21.17 15.67