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Table 4 Native-place ties and organizational commitment: a direct effect

From: The social bases of a committed labor force: how guanxi works in the Chinese factories?

  Model 1 Controls Model 2 With owner Model 3 With mid-level manager Model 4 With lower-level supervisor Model 5 Full model
Fixed effect Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef.
Native-place tie
With owner (no such tie as ref.)
 Not-so-close   − .503**    − .520***
 Close   .529    .129
With mid-level manager (no such tie as ref.)
 Not-so-close    − .211   .001
 Close    .440*   .401**
With lower-level supervisor (no such tie as ref.)
 Not-so-close     −.168 − .061
 Close     .104 .018
Controls (individual level)
Gender (male = 1) − .333*** − .357*** − .332*** − .321*** − .340***
Years of schooling .052** .057** .052** .051** .054**
Hukou (local urban as ref.)
 Local rural − .175 − .136 − .129 − .163 −.145
 Nonlocal urban − .409** − .435** − .410** − .428** − .457**
 Nonlocal rural − .331** − .373** − .329** − .349** − .384**
Cohort (before 1980 as ref.)
 1980–1986 − .205 − .212 − .215 − .231* − .207
 After 1986 − .296** − .309** − .295** − .313** − .295**
Work experience − .017* − .019** − .019** − .019** − .169*
 Occupational class (manager/technical as ref.)
  Routine nonmanual − .214 − .182 − .163 − .185 − .210
  Skilled worker/shop floor − .382* − .354* − .332* − .366* − .367*
  Unskilled worker − .473** − .419** − .395** − .435** − .439**
Hourly wage (log) .638*** .617*** .600*** .612*** .593***
Labor contract (yes = 1) .177 .191 .187 .209* .188
Social insurance (yes = 1) − .036 − .008 − .010 − .028 − .029
Workplace abuse (yes = 1) − .234* − .247* − .232* − .223* − .240*
Union membership (yes = 1) .276* .313** .280* .289* .293*
Work autonomy − .059* − .048 − .052* − .059* − .047
Democratic participation .301*** .280** .278** .294** .266**
Controls (group)
 City + + + + +
 Industry
 Ownership (state-owned as ref.)
  Private − .652 − .650 − .738 − .654 − .638
  Foreign − 1.237** − 1.159* − 1.238** − 1.198** − 1.221**
  Joint − .927* − .899* − .987** − 1.006** − .906*
 Scale of organization (log) − .009 − .001 .023 − .017 .013
 Labor intensive .165 .154 .146 .188 .202
 Human capital stock − .006 − .006 − .006 − .004 − .006
 Rights protection institutions .006 .011 .059 .195 .001
 Intercept 3.141*** 3.177*** 3.011*** 3.120*** 3.188***
 Random effect Sd. Sd. Sd. Sd. Sd.
  Level 2 effect 1.758 1.763 1.828 1.812 1.746
  Level 1 effect 2.962 2.929 2.915 2.929 2.957
 Deviance 25,823.8 25,791.3 25,782.1 25,803.4 25,804.9
 Level 2 observation 282 282 282 282 282
 Level 1 observation 5046 5046 5046 5046 5046
  1. *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01