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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the main variables (N = 2750)

From: How does family background affect children’s educational achievement? Evidence from Contemporary China

Latent variables Indicators Mean/proportion SD
Basic test (TEST) Y1 word test score(0–34) 21.709 7.076
Y2 numeric test score(0–34) 11.138 4.394
Rank of performance (RANK) Y3 rank of Chinese test score reported by parents(1–4) 2.701 .936
Y4 rank of Math test score reported by parents(1–4) 2.642 1.006
Learning behaviors (Effort) Y5 Working hard(1–5) 3.475 .872
Y6 Concentration on class(1–5) 3.671 0.813
Y7 Play only after finishing homework (1–5) 3.300 .993
Y8 Check answers after finishing homework(1–5) 3.646 .896
School quality (School) Y9 Satisfaction with the school(1–5) 3.838 1.028
Y10 Satisfaction with the class advisor(1–5) 4.161 .969
Y11 Satisfaction with Chinese teacher(1–5) 4.163 .963
Y12 Satisfaction with Math teacher(1–5) 4.134 .959
Educational service (Tutor) Y13 whether or not attended tutoring class(1 = yes) .138 .345
Y14 Tutoring class expenditure 1.547 2.751
Parent participation (P_Part) Y15 Stop watching TV when the child is studying(1–5) 3.448 1.310
Y16 Discuss situations in school with the child(1–5) 3.086 1.187
Y17 Always require the child to finish homework(1–5) 3.916 1.040
Y18 Always check answers of homework for the child(1–5) 2.882 1.378
Family social-economic status(FSES) X1 log of mean family income per capita 8.338 .979
X2 Father’s years of education 6.841 4.297
X3 Mother’s years of education 5.238 4.583
Demographic variables X4 urban(1 = urban;0 = rural) .383 .486
X5 Gender(1 = boy;0 = girl) .506 .500
X6 Ethnicity(1 = Han;0 = Minority) .895 .306
X7 Level of education(1 = middle school;0 = primary school) .363 .481