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Table 5 Goodness of fit of measured models (N = 2750)

From: How does family background affect children’s educational achievement? Evidence from Contemporary China

Latent variable Measured variables Standardized factor loading Multiple correlation coefficient
Baseline test (Test) Y1 word test score .664 .441
Y2 math test score .441(0.044)*** .194
Test score rank (Rank) Y3 Chinese test score ranking reported by parents .804(0.035)*** .648
Y4 Math test score ranking reported by parents .763(0.033)*** .583
Learning behaviors (Effort) Y5 Working hard(1–5) .650 .423
Y6 Concentration on class(1–5) .616(0.031)*** .381
Y7 Play only after finishing homework (1–5) .519(0.027)*** .270
Y8 Check answers after finishing homework(1–5) .505(0.027)*** .256
School qualities (School) Y9 Satisfaction with the school(1–5) .533 .284
Y10 Satisfaction with the class advisor(1–5) .862(0.034) .744
Y11 Satisfaction with Chinese teacher(1–5) .730(0.029) .533
Y12 Satisfaction with Math teacher(1–5) .548(0.026) .301
Educational services (Tutor) Y13 whether or not attended tutoring class(1 = yes) .667 .445
Y14 Tutoring class expenditure .681(0.041)*** .464
Parent educational participation (P_Part) Y15 Stop watching TV when the child is studying(1–5) .521 .271
Y16 Discuss situations in school with the child(1–5) .573 (0.032)*** .328
Y17 Always require the child to finish homework(1–5) .468(0.029)*** .219
Y18 Always check answers of homework for the child(1–5) .639 (0.035)*** .408
Family social economic status (FSES) X1 log of mean family income per capita .380 (0.022)*** .145
X2 Father’s years of education .632(0.021)*** .399
X3 Mother’s years of education .770(0.022)*** .593
  1. (1) The first indicators of the latent variable serve as the reference sale. (2) SEs are reported in brackets. (2) *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01. (3) Other control variables include gender, grade, ethnicity, and province dummy variables