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Table 8 The differences in the path coefficients of family SES on children’s academic achievement

From: How does family background affect children’s educational achievement? Evidence from Contemporary China

  Education participation School quality Educational services Learning behaviors Academic achievement
  Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Difference
Family social economic status(FSES) .348*** (.043) .426*** (.056) .114*** (.035) .079** (.039) .341*** (.070) .543*** (.053) − .110** (.043) − .094* (0.051) .149*** (.053) .323*** (.077) − .174* (.093)
Educational participation of parents (P_Part)        .201*** (.042) .261*** (.060) .200*** (.048) .134** (.064) .064 (.083)
School quality (School)        .255*** (.035) .275 (.044) .150*** (.038) .187*** (.050) −.037 (.063)
Educational services (Tutor)          .063 (.048) .094 (.066) −.031 (.082)
Learning behaviors (Effort)          .431*** (.049) .271*** (.064) .160** (.081)
R squares of structural equation models (%) 12.1 18.1 1.3 .6 11.6 29.5 10.0 13.2 27.5 37.9  
R square of simplified equations (%) 12.1 18.1 1.3 .6 11.6 29.5 0 1 6.4 20.8  
Sample size 1697 1053          
  1. (1) Independent variables are listed in the row, and the dependent variables are listed in the column. (2) SEs are reported in brackets. (3) *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01. (4) The difference in path coefficient of the last column in the table is calculated based on the formula provided in Clogg et al. (1995). (5) z = (b1 − b2)/ [(seb12 + seb22)1/2