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Table 3 Tobit regression model of supplemental education consumption

From: “Purchasing hope”: the consumption of children’s education in urban China

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
College-degree parents (yes = 1) 2162.54*** (256.74) 1684.00*** (260.44) 1998.09*** (258.10) 1603.05*** (261.22)
Parents’ occupation (white collar = 1) 779.95** (260.34) 665.90* (259.55) 748.79** (259.89) 653.10* (259.26)
Family economic status (poor = 0)
 Medium 2071.41*** (355.67) 1802.00*** (356.38) 1938.27*** (355.74) 1725.10*** (356.44)
 Wealthy 3471.24*** (479.31) 3338.08*** (478.56) 3336.33*** (478.97) 3249.45*** (478.47)
Parents’ education expectations 246.75*** (35.61) 208.29*** (35.60) 184.46*** (35.91) 184.85*** (35.89)
Grade (grade 9 = 1) 2051.06*** (195.83) 1966.25*** (195.22) 2119.01*** (195.79) 2024.51*** (195.36)
Boarding in school (yes = 1) − 3749.20*** (381.94) − 3416.14*** (383.25) − 3706.68*** (381.65) − 3408.99*** (383.11)
School community (central urban area = 1) 2248.15*** (231.19) 2039.14*** (231.24) 2174.47*** (231.05) 1994.78*** (231.17)
Geographic location of school (west = 0)
 East 42.19 (219.82) 69.97 (219.10) 48.33 (219.57) 74.35 (218.98)
 Central − 7126.50*** (468.47) − 6933.40*** (468.51) − 7105.59*** (468.26) − 6947.70*** (468.49)
Quantitative children structure (the single-child family = 1)   1894.04*** (220.22)   1750.22*** (222.35)
Sex structure of children (boy = 1)   − 1286.02*** (194.11)   − 1200.76*** (194.50)
Residential structure of family (living with both parents = 1)   166.39 (227.83)   118.64 (227.88)
Parental companionship time    110.31*** (32.23) 102.65** (32.21)
Affection interaction    566.33*** (104.53) 409.88*** (105.53)
Constant − 10,573.74*** (747.52) − 10,563.00*** (769.83) − 10,200.91*** (761.20) − 10,320.65*** (785.81)
Sigma 7922.18*** (93.93) 7874.21*** (93.24) 7901.97*** (93.64) 7861.84*** (93.06)
Pseudo R2 .0147 .0160 .0152 .0163
N 9272 9272 9272 9272
  1. Standard errors are in brackets. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001