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Table 4 Logit regression model of supplemental lessons

From: “Purchasing hope”: the consumption of children’s education in urban China

Variables Model 5 (all samples) Model 6 (father samples) Model 7 (mother samples) Model 8 (curricular tutoring class) Model 9 (art/sports interest class)
College-degree parents (yes = 1) .63*** (.07) .51*** (.11) .70*** (.09) .45*** (.06) .52*** (.06)
Parents’ occupation (white collar = 1) .15* (.07) .16 (.10) .21* (.10) .00 (.06) .24*** (.06)
Family economic status (poor = 0)
 Medium .31*** (.07) .33*** (.10) .23* (.11) .31*** (.08) .20* (.08)
 Wealthy .72*** (.11) .66*** (.16) .70*** (.16) .56*** (.11) .63*** (.11)
Parents’ education expectations .05*** (.01) .06*** (.01) .04** (.01) .06*** (.01) .03** (.01)
Grade (grade 9 = 1) − .11* (.05) − .10 (.07) − .09 (.06) .10* (.05) − .14** (.05)
Boarding in school (yes = 1) − .50*** (.08) − .45*** (.11) − .54*** (.11) − .58*** (.08) − .18* (.08)
School community (central urban area = 1) .56*** (.05) .65*** (.08) .45*** (.07) .51*** (.05) .35*** (.05)
Geographic location of school (west = 0)
 East − .22*** (.06) − .25** (.08) − .22** (.08) − .35*** (.05) − .14** (.05)
 Central − 1.09*** (.09) − 1.09*** (.13) − 1.11*** (.12) − 1.65*** (.10) − .42*** (.09)
Quantitative offspring structure (single-child family = 1) .35*** (.05) .32*** (.07) .34*** (.07) .38*** (.05) .14** (.05)
Sex structure of offspring (boy = 1) − .32*** (.05) − .28*** (.07) − .30*** (.06) − .19*** (.05) − .41*** (.05)
Residence structure of family (living with both parents = 1) .12* (.05) .18* (.09) .14* (.07) .13* (.05) .04 (.05)
Parental companionship time .02** (.01) .01 (.01) .03* (.01) .02** (.01) .01 (.01)
Affection interaction .16*** (.02) .18*** (.04) .12*** (.03) .12*** (.02) .13*** (.02)
Constant − 1.03*** (.17) − 1.41*** (.26) − .62* (.24) − 1.85*** (.18) − 1.36*** (.17)
Pseudo R2 .1243 .1254 .1143 .1160 .0666
N 9272 4043 5229 9272 9272
  1. Standard errors are in brackets. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001