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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the variables

From: School of golden touch? A study of school effectiveness in improving student academic performance

Variable Mean/percentage (st. d) Variable Mean/percentage (st. d)
Individual level (N = 9266)
 Standard score for the cognitive ability test (grade 8) .600 (.997)  Male .521 (.500)
 Standard score for the cognitive ability test (grade 7) − .046 (.869)  Urban hukou .472 (.499)
 Value-added of the standard score for the cognitive ability test .646 (.877)  Single child .427 (.495)
 Family income  Parents’ occupation  
  Low income .214 (.410)   Farmers .217 (.412)
  Moderate income .721 (.449)   Clerks .189 (.392)
  High income .065 (.247)   Technicians .159 (.365)
 Parents’ highest education   Professionals and government or state-owned enterprise staff .247 (.432)
  Primary school or below .067 (.250)   Self-employed .172 (.377)
  Middle school .404 (.491)   Other .016 (.126)
  High school .288 (.453)  Learning habits of the last year 3.154 (.757)
  Junior college .105 (.306)  Additional tutoring .357 (.479)
  Undergraduate and above .137 (.344)  Learning foundation 2.056 (.683)
Class level (N = 291)
 Gender of headteacher: male .364 (.482) Education level: undergraduate and above .436 (.497)
 Number of years teaching (year) 14.667 (7.823)
School level (N = 112)
 Period in school (month, second wave) 17.875 (2.895)  Period between two surveys (months) 12.982 (.910)
 School ranking  Teaching environment (teacher-student interactions) 2.579 (.245)
  Lower middle .250 (.435)  School time schedule (time in school every day: hour) 9.757 (1.175)
  Upper middle .536 (.501)  High school promotion pressure 1.991 (.411)
  Top .214 (.412)  School socioeconomic status .277 (.244)
 School material resources 8.357 (1.582)  School’s academic level at the time of enrollment (median) .677 (.079)
 Teacher quality(percentage of teachers with a bachelor degree or above) .825 (.213)