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Table 2 Factor analysis of school processing ability: based on a hierarchical linear model

From: School of golden touch? A study of school effectiveness in improving student academic performance

Variables Academic performance (cognitive score) Value-added of academic performance (cognitive score)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
School ranking, middle-upper .233 (.098)* .222 (.096)* .162 (.093)+ .135 (.088) .087 (.076) .043 (.074) .044 (.072)
School ranking, top .474 (.119)** .462 (.116)** .318 (.119)** .242 (.115)* .230 (.093)* .122 (.095) .092 (.093)
School material resources .082 (.027)** .087 (.027)** .073 (.026)** .074 (.025)** .058 (.022)** .049 (.021)* .052 (.021)*
Teacher quality .435 (.210) * .238 (.218) − .012 (.219) − .054 (.208) .126 (.175) − .041 (.175) − .094 (.171)
Teaching environment (teacher-student interactions)   .432 (.169)* .357 (.168)* .230 (.160) .239 (.146) .208 (.141) .129 (.137)
School time schedule (h/day)    .018 (.034) − .013 (.033) .012 (.028) .026 (.027) .010 (.026)
High school promotion pressure    .042 (.094) .039 (.089) − .017 (.078) .005 (.076) .014 (.073)
School socioeconomic status    .687 (.193)** .515 (.191)**   .501 (.157)** .397 (.158)*
School’s academic level at enrollment     1.149 (.522)*    .847 (.407)*
Learning foundation     − .312 (.013)**    − .206 (.012)**
Constant − 2.113 (.352)** − 3.153 (.534)** − 3.098 (.724)** − 1.959 (.706)** − 1.838 (.811)* − 2.031 (.780)** − 1.464 (.770)+
  1. Note: (1) The sample includes 9266 students from 112 schools. (2) Standard errors are shown in parentheses
  2. +p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, *p < 0.01