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Table 3 Relationships among family class background, cultural capital, and individual effort

From: Cultural reproduction or cultural mobility? Unequal education achievement among Chinese college students

  Family cultural capital Absence Time spent on student activities
Model 1-1 Model 1-2 Model 1-3
B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E.
Gender (male = 1) − .250*** (.052) .165*** (.016) .513* (.203)
Ethnicity (Han = 1) .208** (.076) .030 (.023) − .638* (.260)
Hukou (nonagricultural = 1) .992*** (.066) .006 (.021) − .387 (.260)
University (reference: elite university)    
211 university − .072 (.091) − .006 (.028) − .249 (.351)
non-211 university − .161 + (.090) − .022 (.028) − .403 (.350)
Major (reference: humanities)    
Social science − .224* (.088) − .078** (.027) − .217 (.339)
Natural science − .285*** (.085) − .016 (.026) − .926** (.328)
Cohort (2008 cohort = 1) .226*** (.048) − .022 (.015) − .340 + (.187)
Family class (reference: working-class and farmers)    
Nonphysical laborer .863*** (.073) .097*** (.023) − .701* (.287)
Professional 1.521*** (.107) .153*** (.033) − .414 (.422)
Managerial class 1.586*** (.087) .107*** (.028) − .957** (.350)
Family economic capital .447*** (.026) .049*** (.008) − .050 (.106)
Family cultural capital   − .003 (.005) .039 (.061)
_const. − 2.339*** 1.248*** 7.065***
N 4004 4004 4004
R^2 .442 .061 .020
  1. +p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001