Skip to main content

Table 4 Regression analysis of college students' education achievement (N = 4004)

From: Cultural reproduction or cultural mobility? Unequal education achievement among Chinese college students

  School grades Student leadership English Level Four score
Model 2-1 Model 2-2 Model 2-3 Model 3-1 Model 3-2 Model 3-3 Model 4-1 Model 4-2 Model 4-3
B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E.
Gender (male = 1) − .859*** (− .063) − .859*** (− .063) − .708*** (− .064) − .145* (.063) − .141* (.063) − .116 + (.063) -22.448*** (− 2.172) − 22.256*** (− 2.175) − 21.2738*** (− 2.202)
Ethnicity (Han = 1) .326*** (− .089) .333*** (− .089) .399*** (− .090) .053 (− .092) .039 (− .092) .064 (.093) 21.396*** (− 3.158) 20.665*** (− 3.157) 20.834*** (− 3.155)
Hukou (nonagricultural = 1) − .096 (− .075) − .058 (− .079) − .051 (− .079) − .042 (− .077) − .028 (− .081) − .008 (− .082) 3.751 (− 2.684) .459 (− 2.793) .497 (− 2.791)
University (reference: elite university)
 211 university .154 (− .109) .141 (− .109) .135 (− .110) − .450*** (− .108) − .432*** (− .109) − .456*** (− .109) − 49.089*** (− 3.766) − 48.169*** (− 3.766) − 48.203*** (− 3.763)
 Non-211 university .053 (− .108) .051 (− .108) .025 (− .109) − .518***(− .108) − .509*** (− .108) − .554*** (− .109) − 87.582*** (− 3.756) − 87.153*** (− 3.750) − 87.286*** (− 3.747)
Major (reference: humanities)
 Social science − .157 (− .104) − .156 (− .104) − .079 (− .104) .205 + (− .106) .213*
(− .106)
.207 + (− .107) 14.868*** (− 3.642) 15.048*** (− 3.638) 15.512*** (− 3.639)
 Natural science − .076 (− .101) − .083 (− .101) − .094 (− .102) .174 + (− .103) .190 + (− .103) .256* (− .104) 9.601** (− 3.524) 10.318** (− 3.522) 10.416** (− 3.519)
Cohort (2008 cohort = 1) − .008 (− .057) − .005 (− .057) − .025 (− .057) − .333*** (− .058) .324*** (− .058) .356*** (− .059) 8.707*** (− 2.006) 8.270*** (− 2.007) 8.140*** (− 2.006)
Family class (reference: working-class and farmers)
 Nonphysical laborer − .286*** (− .082) − .232*** (− .087) − .111
(− .088)
.029
(− .085)
− .053
(− .092)
− .026
(− .090)
11.588*** (− 2.930) 7.354* (− 3.082) 7.934* (− 3.086)
 Professional − .227 + (− .121) − .137 (− .130) .070 (− .132) .225 + (− .122) .088(− .130) .109(− .131) 20.022*** (− 4.231) 12.918** (− 4.527) 13.826** (− 4.535)
 Managerial class − .269** (− .093) − .168 (− .106) − .039 (− .107) .419*** (− .096) .269* (− .109) .316**
(− .110)
14.024*** (− 3.309) 6.203 + (− 3.760) 6.840 + (− 3.764)
 Family economic capital   − .057 +
(− .033)
− .001 (− .033)   .050 (− .033) .058 + (− .033)   2.991** (− 1.134) 3.280** (− 1.138)
 Family cultural capital   − .012 (− .019) − .015 (− .019)   .039* (− .019) .037 + (− .019)   1.747** (− .656) 1.728** (− .656)
 Absence    − 1.275*** (− .065)       -5.953** (− 2.417)
 Time spent on student activities       .064*** (− .005)    
Intercepts/constant
 Intercept 1 − 3.219*** (− .185) − 3.781*** (.355) − 5.621*** (− .371) − .345 (− .178) .205
(− .351)
.661
(− .355)
524.428*** (− 6.073) 492.873*** (− 12.096) 500.301*** (− 12.380)
 Intercept 2 − 1.767*** (− .176) − 2.323*** (− .351) − 4.087*** (− .365) .790*** (− .178) 1.342*** (− .352) 1.832*** (− .356)    
 Intercept 3 − .522** (− .174) − 1.083** (− .349) − 2.759*** (− .362) 2.131*** (− .182) 2.685*** (− .354) 3.217*** (− .359)    
 Intercept 4 .710*** (− .175) .151 (− .349) − 1.442*** (− .361) 3.990*** (− .208) 4.544*** (− .368) 5.102*** (− .373)    
N 4004 4004 4004 4004 4004 4004 4004 4004 4004
-2Log Likelihood 11877.93 11873.65 11470.65 10670.51 10661.67 10498.17    
R2        .185 .189 .191
  1. +p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001