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Table 8 Regression models of Japanese residents’ xenophobia (instrumented)

From: History matters: the long-term impact of historical immigrant size on current xenophobia in Japan

  1930 1955 1980
Female (ref. = male) − 0.022 (0.033) − 0.022 (0.033) − 0.022 (0.033)
Age − 0.001 (0.001) − 0.002 (0.001) − 0.001 (0.001)
Educational years − 0.026*** (0.007) − 0.026*** (0.007) − 0.026*** (0.007)
Resident years 0.002*** (0.001) 0.002*** (0.001) 0.002*** (0.001)
Occupational status (ref. = high professionals)
Low professionals − 0.047 (0.123) − 0.048 (0.123) − 0.049 (0.123)
Self-employed 0.033 (0.028) 0.033 (0.028) 0.033 (0.029)
Skilled manual workers 0.056 (0.056) 0.055 (0.056) 0.055 (0.056)
Unskilled manual workers − 0.029 (0.053) − 0.029 (0.053) − 0.029 (0.053)
Agricultural laborers 0.204* (0.115) 0.205* (0.115) 0.206* (0.116)
Unemployed 0.019 (0.034) 0.019 (0.034) 0.018 (0.034)
Logincome − 0.008 (0.013) − 0.008 (0.013) − 0.008 (0.013)
MannuPro 2010 0.573** (0.277) 0.551* (0.285) 0.532* (0.274)
ImmigrantPro_2010 6.966*** (1.737) 7.164*** (1.717) 6.537*** (1.746)
KoreanPro_1930 (Instrumented) 3.393* (1.915)   
KoreanPro_1955 (Instrumented)   3.767 (2.366)  
KoreanPro_1980 (Instrumented)    5.983* (3.136)
Constant 0.130 (0.153) 0.130 (0.153) 0.140 (0.150)
Observations 3155 3155 3155
R-squared 0.018 0.018 0.018
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1