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Table 2 Coefficients from multi-level ordinal logistic regressions predicting viewing guanxi as fair, neutral, or unfair (Chinese General Social Survey 2008)

From: Is guanxi unfair? Market reform and the public attitude toward guanxi in urban China

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Coef. (S.E.) Coef. (S.E.) Coef. (S.E.)
Female 0.080 (0.066) 0.084 (0.066) 0.080 (0.066)
Cohort (ref: < 1978)
 1978–1992 − 0.154+ (0.089) − 0.166+ (0.089) − 0.154+ (0.089)
 1993–2001 − 0.100 (0.106) − 0.103 (0.106) − 0.096 (0.106)
 2002–2008 − 0.282* (0.130) − 0.291* (0.130) − 0.283* (0.130)
Education (ref: ≤ junior high)
 Senior high − 0.006 (0.081) 0.366 (0.275) − 0.011 (0.081)
 ≥ College 0.198+ (0.107) 0.871** (0.310) 0.191+ (0.107)
Party member 0.277** (0.103) 0.280**(0.103) 0.281** (0.103)
Currently married 0.088 (0.096) 0.087 (0.096) 0.095 (0.096)
Occupation (ref: not working)
 Blue collar − 0.107 (0.134) − 0.114 (0.134) − 0.131 (0.135)
 White collar − 0.045 (0.141) − 0.053 (0.141) − 0.065 (0.142)
Migrants 0.134 (0.088) 0.129 (0.088) 0.133 (0.088)
Region (ref: East)
 Middle 0.363 (0.247) 0.375 (0.246) 0.376 (0.247)
 West 0.717** (0.313) 0.725** (0.312) 0.709** (0.312)
Market-sector employment 0.046 (0.079) 0.051 (0.079) − 0.445+ (0.247)
Marketization score 0.100* (0.050) 0.132* (0.053) 0.075 (0.052)
Interaction
 Marketization*senior high   − 0.040 (0.028)  
 Marketization*≥college   − 0.072* (0.031)  
 Marketization*market sector    0.053* (0.025)
Fair | neutral 0.428 0.728 0.192
Neutral | unfair 1.256 1.557 1.022
Province σ2 intercept 0.138 0.137 0.137
Log-likelihood − 3654.92 − 3641.10 − 3641.73
Chi-square 35.94** 41.50** 40.31**
N 3628 3628 3628
  1. Two-sided test
  2. +p < .1
  3. *p < .05
  4. **p < .01
  5. ***p < .001