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Table 1 Definitions of parenting practice

From: The reproduction of working class? Social mobility and the stratification of parenting practice in urban Chinese families

Dimension Concerted cultivation Natural growth
Parenting value (cognitive level) Take responsibility of children’s growth
Meet children’s material needs
Authoritarian or neglecting
Parent-child relationship (interaction level) Frequent and intimate communication Commands
A distant relationship
Skill building (behavior level) Stress on noncognitive skills
Focus on extracurricular activities
Stress on cognitive skills
No emphasis on extracurricular activities