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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of each variable

From: Institutional inertia, local leadership turnover, and changes in the structure of fiscal expenditure

  Variable Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum
Governor Deviation rate of economic construction expenditures 0.76 1.24 − 0.46 13.06
Deviation rate of science, education, culture, and health expenditures 0.03 0.19 − 0.43 0.84
Deviation rate of public security expenditures -0.06 0.13 − 0.40 0.56
Term length 2.93 1.87 1.00 10.00
Age of Official 57.97 3.86 45.00 65.00
From the central government 0.29 0.46 0.00 1.00
From the province 0.55 0.50 0.00 1.00
Provincial Party Committee secretary Deviation rate of economic construction expenditures 0.75 1.16 − 0.42 9.54
Deviation rate of science, education, culture, and health expenditures 0.02 0.17 − 0.49 0.60
Deviation rate of public security expenditures -0.06 0.14 − 0.38 0.64
Term length 3.07 2.15 1.00 14.00
Age of Official 60.36 3.86 47.00 70.00
From the central government 0.42 0.49 0.00 1.00
From the province 0.28 0.45 0.00 1.00
Goals Absolute deviation ratio of economic construction expenditures from the national average − 0.00 0.21 − 0.71 0.84
Absolute deviation ratio of science, education, culture, and health of expenditures from the national average 0.12 0.11 0.00 0.61
Absolute deviation ratio of public security expenditures from the national average 0.12 0.09 0.00 0.49
The deviation between local and central Absolute deviation of the ratio of economic construction expenditures 0.16 0.08 − 0.05 0.35
Absolute deviation of the ratio of science, education, culture, and health expenditures 0.10 0.05 − 0.03 0.25
Absolute deviation of the ratio of public security expenditures − 0.02 0.02 − 0.07 0.03
Provincial level control variables Urbanization rate 0.54 0.14 0.22 0.90
Aging rate 0.13 0.03 0.06 0.20
GDP (logarithm) 9.43 1.05 5.83 11.49
Permanent population (logarithm) 8.11 0.85 5.67 9.34
Industrial enterprises (logarithm) 8.70 1.42 4.03 11.09
The added value of the primary industry (logarithm) 6.94 1.14 4.01 8.51
The added value of the secondary industry (logarithm) 8.62 1.11 4.59 10.63
The added value of the tertiary industry (logarithm) 8.60 1.08 5.24 10.87