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Table 1 Cognitive ability of urban and rural students

From: Does preschool attendance affect the urban-rural cognition gap among middle school students? Evidence from China Education Panel Survey

Grade Sample N Mean Diff. Effect size
7 Nationwide Urban 4332 0.154 0.248*** 0.290
Rural 5104 − 0.094
West region Urban 1181 0.120 0.327*** 0.399
Rural 1111 − 0.207
9 Nationwide Urban 3637 0.215 0.362*** 0.438
Rural 4675 − 0.147
West region Urban 1046 0.243 0.478*** 0.570
Rural 973 − 0.236
  1. Notes: (1) *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01