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Table 2 Preschool experience of urban and rural students

From: Does preschool attendance affect the urban-rural cognition gap among middle school students? Evidence from China Education Panel Survey

Grade Sample N Mean Diff. Effect size
1. The proportion of preschool attendance
 7 Nationwide Urban 4332 85.66% 8.22%*** 0.212
Rural 5104 77.45%
West region Urban 1181 87.47% 13.39%*** 0.346
Rural 1111 74.08%
 9 Nationwide Urban 3637 84.11% 9.71%*** 0.239
Rural 4675 74.40%
West region Urban 1046 85.28% 14.36%*** 0.354
Rural 973 70.91%
2. The duration of preschool education (the years of staying at kindergarten)
 7 Nationwide Urban 3688 2.42 0.45*** 0.328
Rural 4317 1.97
West region Urban 1011 2.47 0.75*** 0.577
Rural 954 1.71
 9 Nationwide Urban 3145 2.31 0.57*** 0.422
Rural 4041 1.74
West region Urban 919 2.34 0.91*** 0.722
Rural 857 1.43
  1. Notes: (1) *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.