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Table 3 The effect of preschool attendance on cognitive ability

From: Does preschool attendance affect the urban-rural cognition gap among middle school students? Evidence from China Education Panel Survey

Sample OLS PSM
Caliper Neighbors within caliper Kernel Local linear regression
Grade 7 Nationwide pooled 0.162***(0.024) 0.172***(0.025) 0.183***(0.027) 0.178***(0.025) 0.180***(0.032)
Nationwide urban 0.203***(0.042) 0.205***(0.044) 0.252***(0.046) 0.203***(0.043) 0.221***(0.055)
Nationwide rural 0.136***(0.025) 0.135***(0.029) 0.162***(0.032) 0.142***(0.029) 0.136***(0.037)
Western pooled 0.223***(0.044) 0.227***(0.058) 0.247***(0.063) 0.241***(0.055) 0.264***(0.077)
Western urban 0.305***(0.068) 0.284***(0.093) 0.279***(0.096) 0.317***(0.084) 0.345***(0.112)
Western rural 0.164***(0.047) 0.157**(0.067) 0.175**(0.071) 0.175***(0.064) 0.190**(0.079)
Grade 9 Nationwide pooled 0.098***(0.023) 0.100***(0.025) 0.085***(0.027) 0.111***(0.025) 0.130***(0.033)
Nationwide urban 0.097**(0.039) 0.079*(0.047) 0.053(0.050) 0.087*(0.045) 0.103*(0.058)
Nationwide rural 0.101***(0.029) 0.111***(0.029) 0.112***(0.031) 0.128***(0.028) 0.121***(0.037)
Western pooled 0.116**(0.045) 0.101*(0.060) 0.136*(0.063) 0.117**(0.059) 0.212***(0.072)
Western urban 0.141*(0.071) 0.096(0.111) 0.062(0.113) 0.064(0.106) 0.116(0.132)
Western rural 0.113*(0.061) 0.139**(0.066) 0.151**(0.071) 0.166**(0.065) 0.198**(0.080)
  1. Notes:(1) Each coefficient is from a separate model; (2) *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01; (3) All control variables are included in OLS models and the clustered standard errors are in parentheses; (4) The Average Treatment effects for the treated (ATT) are reported for PSM estimation and the standard errors are in parentheses