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Table 1 Statistical description of main variables

From: The self-centered philanthropist: family involvement and corporate social responsibility in private enterprises

Variable Sample size Mean Standard deviation Minimum value Maximum value
Dependent variable
Charitable donation (yuan, logarithm) 2563 7.41 4.32 0 16.12
Pollution control investment (yuan, logarithm) 2603 3.50 5.10 0 16.38
Social insurance investment (yuan, logarithm) 1947 7.88 5.67 0 16.85
Employee training investment (yuan, logarithm) 2649 6.71 5.00 0 15.04
Charity sales ratio (logarithm) 2561 2.14 1.82 0 9.32
Pollution control sales ratio (logarithm) 2602 1.06 1.84 0 9.79
Social security sales ratio (logarithm) 1946 2.96 2.38 0 9.47
Training sales ratio (logarithm) 2649 1.94 1.83 0 7.91
Independent variable
Family ownership involvement 2734 0.80 0.29 0 1
Involvement of family management rights 2734 0.26 0.33 0 1
Control variable
Gender (1 = male) 2734 0.86 0.34 0 1
Education (1 = University and above) 2734 0.61 0.49 0 1
Political connections (1 = yes) 2734 0.48 0.50 0 1
Diversity (1 = yes) 2734 0.23 0.42 0 1
Manufacturing (1 = yes) 2734 0.43 0.50 0 1
Corporate history 2734 8.80 4.60 1 21
Region
Eastern (1 = yes) 2734 0.56 0.50 0 1
Central (1 = yes) 2734 0.24 0.43 0 1
Western (1 = yes) 2734 0.19 0.39 0 1
Number of employees (logarithm) 2734 4.05 1.56 0.69 9.20
Sales (ten thousand yuan, logarithm) 2734 6.72 2.25 0.41 15.19
Sales margin 2734 10.89 16.38 0 100