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Table 3 The biggest likelihood estimate of family involvement and intensity of CSR input

From: The self-centered philanthropist: family involvement and corporate social responsibility in private enterprises

  Model 2.1 Model 2.2 Model 2.3 Model 2.4
Charitable donation Pollution control investment Social security investment Training investment
B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E. B/S.E.
Gender (1 = male) 0.005
(0.122)
0.565+
(0.305)
− 0.530*
(0.220)
0.075
(0.160)
Education (1 = University and above) 0.158+
(0.088)
− 0.393+
(0.202)
0.769***
(0.167)
0.310**
(0.111)
Political connection (1 = yes) 0.955***
(0.088)
0.516*
(0.210)
0.025
(0.161)
0.410***
(0.110)
Diversity (1 = yes) 0.448***
(0.094)
− 0.115
(0.213)
− 0.197
(0.175)
0.264*
(0.115)
Manufacturing (1 = yes) − 0.386***
(0.089)
1.591***
(0.198)
0.373*
(0.155)
0.003
(0.103)
Corporate history 0.050***
(0.010)
0.008
(0.022)
0.036*
(0.017)
0.006
(0.012)
Region (reference item: Eastern)
Central − 0.325**
(0.103)
− 0.392+
(0.231)
− 1.329***
(0.190)
− 0.159
(0.127)
Western − 0.358**
(0.114)
0.205
(0.259)
− 0.760***
(0.199)
0.112
(0.134)
Number of employees 0.356***
(0.041)
0.983***
(0.098)
0.596***
(0.073)
0.667***
(0.051)
Sales − 0.363***
(0.032)
− 0.109
(0.071)
− 0.062
(0.057)
− 0.229***
(0.040)
Sales margin 0.016***
(0.003)
0.026***
(0.007)
− 0.008
(0.007)
0.014**
(0.004)
Involvement of Family ownership 0.465**
(0.148)
− 0.389
(0.320)
− 0.765**
(0.249)
0.090
(0.172)
Involvement of family management rights 0.232+
(0.140)
0.651*
(0.321)
− 0.962***
(0.279)
− 0.878***
(0.186)
Constant term 1.490***
(0.257)
− 6.092***
(0.558)
1.348**
(0.469)
− 0.327
(0.314)
Sample size 2561 2602 1946 2649
Interception number on the left 555 1676 634 882
− 2 Log Likelihood 9587.51 6711.40 7750.30 9562.56
  1. +p < 0.1, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 (2) robust standard error in parentheses